Public health has been described as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals."[48] It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). Public health has many sub-fields, but typically includes the interdisciplinary categories of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental health, community health, behavioral health, and occupational health are also important areas of public health.

An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, environments, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity.[16]– such as the 1974 Lalonde report from Canada;[15] the Alameda County Study in California;[17] and the series of World Health Reports of the World Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public health outcomes, especially in developing countries.[18]
In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health.[11] It also created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy, even in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, and for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases.[12]
“Le mouvement One Health (“une seule santé”), initié au début des années 2000, fait suite à la recrudescence et à l'émergence de maladies infectieuses, en raison notamment de la mondialisation des échanges. Le principe [de One Health] est simple : la protection de la santé de l'Homme passe par la santé de l'animal et celle de l'ensemble des écosystèmes”, peut-on lire sur le site de l'Inrae. Alors que nous traversons une période de pandémie mondiale, comme l'explique Philippe Mauguin, PDG de l'Inrae, il est important de rappeler que 60 % des maladies infectieuses humaines proviennent du monde animal : c'est la zoonose. De plus, 70 % de ces maladies nous sont transmises par les animaux sauvages. L'objectif de cet Institut qui a vu le jour en janvier 2020, au travers de One Health, est de démontrer le lien entre la dégradation de la biodiversité et l'émergence de ces nouvelles zoonoses. Pour cela, plusieurs départements et unités de recherche de l'Inrae consacrent leurs études aux facteurs de dégradation et des pressions imposées sur l'ensemble des écosystèmes. “La problématique des conséquences directes et indirectes de différents facteurs de l'environnement sur les santés [...] est un sujet de préoccupation pour l'Inrae”, explique Thierry Caquet, Directeur Scientifique-Environnement de l'Institut.
Le département de Santé Animale de l'Institut, dirigé par Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, étudie les interactions entre la santé animale et humaine. “Pour préserver la santé de l'Homme, une des voies est de préserver la santé animale” explique-t-elle. Mais cette protection ne doit pas être menée n'importe comment. Ces dernières années, il a été observé que la résistance aux antibiotiques avait largement augmenté chez de nombreux animaux dû à un usage massif. Ceci contribue à l'apparition de nouveaux virus plus résistants et donc potentiellement plus facilement transmissibles à l'Homme. L'unité Génétique Animale et Biologie Intégrative, dirigée par Claire Rogel-Gaillard, se consacre à l'étude de la diversité génomique en élevage, et son lien avec les santés : “Comment sélectionner des animaux qui vont être en bonne santé [...] tout en limitant l'usage d'anti-infectieux et en réduisant l'empreinte environnementale ? Il y a en fait un lien assez fort entre la durabilité des systèmes d'élevage et la santé des Hommes et animaux de la Terre.” A l'aide de travaux sur la variabilité individuelle des réponses immunitaires (aux maladies et aux vaccins) sur les animaux d'élevage, Mme Rogel-Gaillard explique qu'il “n'existe pas d'animal complètement optimal dans toutes les conditions et dans tous les environnements [...]. Une génétique optimale dans un environnement peut ne pas être optimale dans un autre.” 

Finally, while many testimonial and anecdotal accounts exist of health improvements following a "detox", these are more likely attributable to the placebo effect; where people actually believe that they are doing something good and healthy. Yet, there is a severe lack of quantitative data. Some changes recommended in certain "detox" lifestyles are also found in mainstream medical advice (such as consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables). These changes can often produce beneficial effects in and of themselves, and it is accordingly difficult to separate these effects from those caused by the more controversial detoxification recommendations.

A leader in the eradication and elimination of diseases, the Center fights six preventable diseases — Guinea worm, river blindness, trachoma, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and malaria in Hispaniola — by using health education and simple, low-cost methods. The Center also strives to improve maternal and child health in Sudan and Nigeria and improve access to mental health care globally.
^ Housman & Dorman 2005, pp. 303–04. "The linear model supported previous findings, including regular exercise, limited alcohol consumption, abstinence from smoking, sleeping 7–8 hours a night, and maintenance of a healthy weight play an important role in promoting longevity and delaying illness and death." Citing Wingard DL, Berkman LF, Brand RJ (1982). "A multivariate analysis of health-related practices: a nine-year mortality follow-up of the Alameda County Study". Am J Epidemiol. 116 (5): 765–75. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113466. PMID 7148802.

Making the decision to cleanse your body is great! It shows that you’re taking your health seriously and trying to make positive changes. However, rather than trying cleansing plans, doctors recommend living an overall healthier lifestyle instead. There’s really just no substitute for a healthy diet, regular exercise, lots of sleep, and cutting out harmful habits like smoking and drinking. By making these changes, you can successfully cleanse your body and enjoy the benefits.